Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access

How Could Early Christians Be Wrong? The Role of Fahm al-Salaf in the Biblical Hermeneutics of Ibn Taymiyyah and Michael Servetus

Mohammad Abu Shareea

Abstract


https://doi.org/10.12730/13091719.2019.102.195

This study comparatively examines the centrality of the argument about early authorities’ understanding of scripture within the biblical hermeneutics of Ibn Taymiyyah (d. 728/1328) and Michael Servetus (d. 1553). It concludes that both figures aimed to examine mainstream Christianity through similar ante-Nicene biblical hermeneutics. The topics of this hermeneutics include linguistic analysis, scriptural usage of a term, historical contexts of a term, scriptural harmony, and early authorities’ understanding of scripture. However, they had different interpretations of the whole Christian tradition for two main reasons. First, they had two different faith commitments, namely, Ibn Taymiyyah was a Muslim and Servetus was a Christian. The second reason is their different scopes of examining the Christian tradition when approaching the testimonies of the ante-Nicene fathers, which is understood in this study as fahm al-Salaf. Accordingly, the study argues for three conclusions. First, the logical conclusions of Servetus’s hermeneutics should have led to Joseph Priestley’s concept of God. Second, if Ibn Taymiyyah had access to the writings of the ante-Nicene fathers, then he would have argued for the Ebionites. Third, that a critical question could be presented by Christians to the Muslim audience regarding the divinity of Jesus is the argument from tawātur maʿnawī (thematic recurrent mass transmission)

Full Text:

FULL TEXT

References


Aaron, David H. Biblical Ambiguities: Metaphor, Semantics and Divine Imagery. Leiden, Boston & Köln: Brill, 2001.

ʿAbbās, Faḍl Ḥasan. Qaṣaṣ al-Qurʾān al-karīm. 3rd ed. Amman: Dār al-Nafāʾis, 2010.

ʿAbduh, Muḥammad. Risālat al-tawḥīd, in al-Aʿmāl al-kāmilah li-l-Imām al-Shaykh Muḥammad ʿAbduh, edited by Muḥammad ʿAmārah, III, 369-490. Cairo: Dār al-Shurūq, 1993.

Abrahamov, Binyamin. “Ibn Taymiyya on the Agreement of Reason with Tradition.” The Muslim World 82, no. 3-4 (1992): 256-273. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1478-1913.1992.tb03556.x.

Adamson, Peter. “If Aquinas is a Philosopher then so are the Islamic Theologians.” Published in association with Oxford University Press, an Aeon Strategic Partner. Edited by Nigel Warburton. https://aeon.co/ideas/if-aquinas-is-a-philosopher-then-so-are-the-islamic-theologians. Accessed February 10, 2017.

Aḥmad ibn Ḥanbal, Abū ʿAbd Allāh Aḥmad ibn Muḥammad. al-Radd ʿalá l-zanādiqah wa-l-Jahmiyyah fī-mā shakkat fīhi min mutashābih al-Qurʾān wa-taʾawwalathu ʿalá ghayr taʾwīlihī. Edited by Daghsh al-ʿAjmī. Kuwait: Ghirās li-l-Nashr wa-l-Tawzīʿ wa-l-Diʿāyah wa-l-Iʿlān, 2005.

al-Āmidī, Abū l-Ḥasan Sayf al-Dīn ʿAlī ibn Muḥammad. Abkār al-afkār fī uṣūl al-dīn. 5 vols. Edited by Aḥmad Muḥammad al-Mahdī. 2nd ed. Cairo: Dār al-Kutub wa-l-Wathāʾiq al-Qawmiyyah, 2004.

al-ʿĀmirī, Abū l-Ḥasan Muḥammad ibn Yūsuf. Kitāb al-amad ʿalá l-abad. Edited by Everett K. Rowson. Beirut: Dār al-Kindī, 1979.

Backus, Irena. Historical Method and Confessional Identity in the Era of the Reformation (1378-1615). Leiden & Boston: Brill, 2003.

______. “Theological Relations: Calvin and the Church Fathers.” In The Calvin Handbook, edited by Herman J. Selderhuis, translated by Henry J. Baron, Judith J. Guder, Randi H. Lundell, and Gerrit W. Sheeres, 125-136. Grand Rapids, MI: William B. Eerdmans, 2009.

Bainton, Roland H. Hunted Heretic: The Life and Death of Michael Servetus. Boston: The Beacon Press, 1953.

al-Baṣrī, ʿAmmār. Kitāb al-burhān wa-kitāb al-masāʾil wa-l-ajwibah: Apologie et Controverses. Edited by Mīshāl al-Ḥāyik. Beirut: Dār al-Mashriq, 1977.

al-Bayḍāwī, Nāṣir al-Dīn Abū Saʿīd ʿAbd Allāh ibn ʿUmar ibn Muḥammad. awāliʿ al-anwār min Maṭāliʿ al-anẓār. Beirut & Cairo: Dār al-Jīl & al-Maktabah al-Azhariyyah li-l-Turāth, n.d.

al-Biqāʿī, Abū l-Ḥasan Burhān al-Dīn Ibrāhīm ibn ʿUmar. Naẓm al-durar fī tanāsub al-āyāt wa-l-suwar. 22 vols. Cairo: Dār al-Kitāb al-Islāmī, 1984.

Bird, Michael F., Craig A. Evans, Simon J. Gathercole, Charles E. Hill, and Chris Tilling. How God Became Jesus: The Real Origins of Belief in Jesus’ Divine Nature - A Response to Bart D. Ehrman. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 2014.

Burton, Edward. Testimonies of the Ante-Nicene Fathers to the Divinity of Christ. 2nd ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1829.

Cuthbertson, David. A Tragedy of the Reformation: Being the Authentic Narrative of the History and Burning of the “Christianismi Restitutio,” 1553. Edinburgh & London: Oliphant, Anderson & Ferrier, 1912.

Daniélou, Jean. The Theology of Jewish Christianity. Edited and translated by John A. Baker. Chicago: The Henry Regnery Co., 1964.

Dillon, John M. “The Knowledge of God in Origen.” In Knowledge of God in the Graeco-Roman World, edited by Roel van den Broek, Tjitze Baarda, and Jaap Mansfeld, 219-228. Leiden, New York, København & Köln: E. J. Brill, 1988.

Ehrman, Bart D. Lost Christianities: The Battles for Scripture and the Faiths We Never Knew. New York: Oxford University Press, 2003.

______. How Jesus Became God: the Exaltation of a Jewish Preacher from Galilee. New York, NY: HarperOne, 2014.

al-Fayyūmī, Saʿīd ibn Yūsuf. Kitāb al-amānāt wa-l-iʿtiqādāt. Edited by Samuel Landauer. Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1880.

Frank, David B. “Do We Translate the Original Author’s Intended Meaning?.” Open Theology 2, no. 1 (2016): 653-667. https://doi.org/10.1515/opth-2016-0051.

Frank, Richard M. “The Neoplatonism of Ğahm ibn Ṣafwân.Le Muséon: Revue d’Études Orientales 78, no. 3-4 (1965): 395-424.

Friedman, Jerome. Michael Servetus: A Case Study in Total Heresy. Geneva: Librairie Droz S.A., 1978.

Fulton, John F. Michael Servetus: Humanist and Martyr. New York: Herbert Reichner, 1953.

George, Timothy. Theology of the Reformers. Nashville, TN: Broadman & Holman Publishing Group, 2013.

Gordon, Alexander. Addresses, Biographical and Historical. London: The Lindsey Press, 1922.

Gow, Andrew Colin, and Jeremy Fradkin. “Protestantism and Non-Christian Religions.” In The Oxford Handbook of the Protestant Reformations, edited by Ulinka Rublack, 274-300. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2016.

Griffel, Frank. “Fakhr al-Dīn al-Rāzī.” In Encyclopedia of Medieval Philosophy: Philosophy between 500 and 1500, 2 vols., edited by Henrik Lagerlund. Dordrecht: Springer Verlag, 2011, 341-345. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4020-9729-4.

Griffith, Sidney H. The Church in the Shadow of the Mosque: Christians and Muslims in the World of Islam. Princeton & Oxford: Princeton University Press, 2008.

______. “The Melkites and the Muslims: The Qur’ān, Christology, and Arab Orthodoxy.” Al-Qanṭara: Revista de Estudios Árabes 33, no. 2 (2012): 413-443. https://doi.org/10.3989/alqantara.2012.004.

______. The Bible in Arabic: The Scriptures of the “People of the Book” in the Language of Islam. Princeton & Oxford: Princeton University Press, 2013.

Guttman, Julius. Philosophies of Judaism: The History of Jewish Philosophy from Biblical Times to Franz Rosenzweig. New York: Schocken Books, 1973.

Hadas-Lebel, Mireille. Philo of Alexandria: A Thinker in the Jewish Diaspora. Translated by. Robyn Fréchet. Leiden & Boston: Brill, 2012.

Hallaq, Wael B. Ibn Taymiyya against the Greek Logicians. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1993.

Haude, Sigrun. “Anabaptism.” In The Reformation World, edited by Andrew Pettegree, 237-256. London & New York: Routledge, 2000.

Hege, Brent A. R. Myth, History, and the Resurrection in German Protestant Theology. Eugene, OR: Pickwick Publications, 2017.

Hillar, Marian. The Case of Michael Servetus (1511-1553): the Turning Point in the Struggle for Freedom of Conscience. Lewiston, NY: The Edwin Mellen Press, 1997.

Hirsch, Elisabeth Feist. “Michael Servetus and the Neoplatonic Tradition: God, Christ and Man.” Bibliothèque d’Humanisme et Renaissance 42, no. 3 (1980): 561-575.

Hirsch, Jr., E. D. Validity in Interpretation. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1967.

Hodgson, Marshall G. S. The Venture of Islam: Conscience and History in a World Civilization, volume 1: The Classical Age of Islam. Chicago & London: The University of Chicago Press, 1977.

Hofer, Andrew. “Scripture in the Christological Controversies.” In The Oxford Handbook of Early Christian Biblical Interpretation, edited by Paul M. Blowers and Peter W. Martens, 455-472. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2019.

Holt, Mack P. “Calvin and Reformed Protestantism.” In The Oxford Handbook of the Protestant Reformations, edited by Ulinka Rublack, 214-232. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2016.

Hoover, Jon. “Perpetual Creativity in the Perfection of God: Ibn Taymiyya’s Hadith Commentary on God’s Creation of This World.” Journal of Islamic Studies 15, no. 3 (2004): 287-329. https://doi.org/10.1093/jis/15.3.287.

______. “Ibn Taymiyya.” In Christian-Muslim Relations: A Bibliographical History, Volume 4 (1200-1350), edited by David Thomas and Alex Mallett, 824-878. Leiden & Boston: Brill, 2009.

______. “Ḥanbalī Theology.” In The Oxford Handbook of Islamic Theology, edited by Sabine Schmidtke, 625-646. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2016.

Hunsinger, George. “Karl Barth’s Doctrine of the Trinity, and Some Protestant Doctrines after Barth.” In The Oxford Handbook of the Trinity, edited by Gilles Emery and Matthew Levering, 294-313. Oxford & New York: Oxford University Press, 2011.

Husseini, Sara Leila. Early Christian-Muslim Debate on the Unity of God: Three Christian Scholars and Their Engagement with Islamic Thought (9th century C.E.). Leiden & Boston: Brill, 2014.

Ibn ʿAbd al-Hādī, Abū ʿAbd Allāh Shams al-Dīn Muḥammad ibn Aḥmad al-Dimashqī. al-ʿUqūd al-durriyyah min manāqib Shaykh al-islām Ibn Taymiyyah. Edited by Abū Muṣʿab Ṭalʿat ibn Fuʾād al-Ḥalwānī. Cairo: al-Fārūq al-Ḥadīthah li-l-Ṭibāʿah wa-l-Nashr, 2002.

Ibn ʿĀshūr, Muḥammad al-Ṭāhir ibn Muḥammad ibn Muḥammad. Tafsīr al-taḥrīr wa-l-tanwīr. 30 vols. Tunis: al-Dār al-Tūnisiyyah li-l-Nashr, 1984.

Ibn Ḥazm, Abū Muḥammad ʿAlī ibn Aḥmad ibn Saʿīd al-Andalusī al-Qurṭubī. Marātib al-ijmāʿ fī l-ʿibādāt wa-l-muʿāmalāt wa-l-iʿtiqādāt. Cairo: Maktabat al-Qudsī, 1938.

Ibn Kammūnah, ʿIzz al-Dawlah Saʿd ibn Manṣūr ibn Saʿd al-Isrāʾīlī al-Baghdādī. Tanqīḥ al-abḥāth li-l-milal al-thalāth: al-Yahūdiyyah, al-Masīḥiyyah, al-Islām. Edited by Moshe Perlmann. Cairo: Dār al-Anṣār, 1967.

Ibn Sīnā, Abū ʿAlī al-Ḥusayn ibn ʿAbd Allāh ibn ʿAlī. al-Aḍḥawiyyah fī l-maʿād. Edited by Ḥasan ʿĀṣī. Tehran: Muʾassasah-ʾi Shams-i Tabrīzī, 1382 HS.

Ibn Taymiyyah, Abū l-ʿAbbās Taqī al-Dīn Aḥmad ibn ʿAbd al-Ḥalīm al-Ḥarrānī. al-Risālah al-Tadmuriyyah. Cairo: Maktabat al-Sunnah al-Muḥammadiyyah, 1950.

______. Bayān talbīs al-Jahmiyyah fī taʾsīs bidaʿihim al-kalāmiyyah, aw naqḍ taʾsīs al-Jahmiyyah. 2 vols. Edited by Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd al-Raḥmān ibn Qāsim. Mecca: Maṭbaʿat al-Ḥukūmah, 1971.

______. Minhāj al-sunnah al-nabawiyyah fī naqḍ kalām al-Shīʿah al-Qadariyyah. 9 vols. Edited by Muḥammad Rashād Sālim. Riyadh: Jāmiʿat al-Imām Muḥammad ibn Suʿūd al-Islāmiyyah, 1986.

______. Darʾ taʿāruḍ al-ʿaql wa-l-naql. 11 vols. Edited by Muḥammad Rashād Sālim. 2nd ed. Riyadh: Jāmiʿat al-Imām Muḥammad ibn Suʿūd al-Islāmiyyah, 1991.

______. Sharḥ al-ʿAqīdah al-Iṣfahāniyyah. Edited by Saʿīd ibn Naṣr ibn Muḥammad. Riyadh: Maktabat al-Rushd li-l-Nashr wa-l-Tawzīʿ, 2001.

______. Majmūʿ fatāwá Shaykh al-islām Aḥmad Ibn Taymiyyah. 37 vols. Edited by ʿAbd al-Raḥmān ibn Muḥammad ibn Qāsim. Medina: Mujammaʿ al-Malik Fahd li-Ṭibāʿat al-Muṣḥaf al-Sharīf, 2003-2004.

al-Ījī, Abū l-Faḍl ʿAḍud al-Dīn ʿAbd al-Raḥmān ibn Aḥmad. al-Mawāqif fī ʿilm al-kalām. Beirut: ʿĀlam al-Kutub, 1999.

İskenderoğlu, Muammer. “Fakhr al-Dīn al-Rāzī.” In Christian-Muslim Relations: A Bibliographical History, Volume 4 (1200-1350), edited by David Thomas and Alex Mallett, 61-65. Leiden & Boston: Brill, 2009.

Janosik, Daniel. John of Damascus, First Apologist to the Muslims: The Trinity and Christian Apologetics in the Early Islamic Period. Eugene, OR: Pickwick Publications, 2016.

Kannengiesser, Charles, ed. Handbook of Patristic Exegesis: The Bible in Ancient Christianity. 2 vols. Leiden & Boston: Brill, 2004.

Kaya, Veysel.  “Reason and Intellect.” In The Oxford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Science, and Technology in Islam, edited by Ibrahim Kalin, II, 185-191. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2014.

Kingston, Elizabeth Sarah. “‘The Language of the Naked Facts’: Joseph Priestley on Language and Revealed Religion.” PhD diss., Falmer, Brighton, UK: University of Sussex, 2010.

Lasker, Daniel Judah. “Jewish Philosophical Polemics against Christianity in the Middle Ages.” PhD diss., Waltham, MA: University of Brandeis, 1976.

______. “The Jewish Critique of Christianity under Islam in the Middle Ages.” Proceedings of the American Academy for Jewish Research 57 (1990-1991): 121-153. https://doi.org/10.2307/3622656.

Leaman, Oliver. “The Developed Kalām Tradition, Part I.” In The Cambridge Companion to Classical Islamic Theology, edited by Tim Winter, 77-90. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2008.

Legge, Dominic. The Trinitarian Christology of St Thomas Aquinas. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2017.

Lim, Paul Chang-Ha. Mystery Unveiled: The Crisis of the Trinity in Early Modern England. New York: Oxford University Press, 2012.

Maimonides, Moses. The Guide for the Perplexed. Translated by Michael Friedländer. 2nd ed. London: George Routledge & Sons, 1904.

al-Malāḥimī, Rukn al-Dīn Maḥmūd ibn Muḥammad. Kitāb al-muʿtamad fī uṣūl al-dīn. Edited by Martin J. McDermott and Wilferd Madelung. London: al-Hudá, 1991.

Malcolm, Noel. Useful Enemies: Islam and The Ottoman Empire in Western Political Thought, 1450-1750. Oxford & New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 2019.

McEvoy, J. G., and J. E. McGuire. “God and Nature: Priestley’s Way of Rational Dissent.” In Historical Studies in the Physical Sciences, Sixth Annual Volume, edited by Russell McCormmach, 325-404. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1975.

Meier, Christian. “The Origins of Islam: A Conversation with the German Islamic Scholar Josef Van Ess.” Fikrun wa Fann: A Publication of Goethe-Institut, November 2011. Translated by Charlotte Collins. http://www.goethe.de/ges/phi/prj/ffs/the/a96/en8626506.htm. Accessed June 3, 2019.

Meijering, E. P. “God Cosmos History: Christian and Neo-Platonic Views on Divine Revelation.” Vigiliae Christianae 28, no. 4 (1974): 248-276. https://doi.org/10.2307/1583232.

Mikhail, Wageeh Y. F. “ʿAmmār al-Baṣrī’s Kitāb al-Burhān: A Topical and Theological Analysis of Arabic Christian Theology in the Ninth Century.” PhD diss., Birmingham: University of Birmingham, 2013.

Mills, Simon. “Joseph Priestley and the Intellectual Culture of Rational Dissent, 1752-1796.” PhD diss., London: Queen Mary, University of London, 2009.

Naphy, William G. “Calvin and Geneva.” In The Reformation World, edited by Andrew Pettegree, 309-322. London & New York: Routledge, 2000.

Niehoff, Maren R. Philo of Alexandria: An Intellectual Biography. New Haven & London: Yale University Press, 2018.

Odhner, Carl. Michael Servetus: His Life and Teachings. Philadelphia: Press of J. B. Lippincott Company, 1910.

Olson, Roger E., and Christopher A. Hall. The Trinity. Grand Rapids, MI & Cambridge, UK: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 2002.

Ovadia, Miriam. Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyya and the Divine Attributes: Rationalized Traditionalistic Theology. Leiden & Boston: Brill, 2018.

Paulsen, David L. “Early Christian Belief in a Corporeal Deity: Origen and Augustine as Reluctant Witnesses.” Harvard Theological Review 83, no. 2 (1990): 105-116.

Peters, F. E. The Monotheists: Jews, Christians, and Muslims in Conflict and Competition, volume II: The Words and Will of God. Princeton & Oxford: Princeton University Press, 2003.

Phan, Peter C. “Developments of the Doctrine of Trinity.” In The Cambridge Companion to the Trinity, edited by Peter C. Phan, 3-12. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2011.

al-Qarāfī, Abū l-ʿAbbās Shihāb al-Dīn Aḥmad ibn Idrīs ibn ʿAbd al-Raḥmān. Nafāʾis al-uṣūl fī sharḥ al-Maḥṣūl. 9 vols. Edited by ʿĀdil Aḥmad ʿAbd al-Mawjūd and ʿAlī Muḥammad Muʿawwaḍ. Mecca: Maktabat Nizār Muṣṭafá al-Bāz, 1995.

Ralston, Joshua. “Islam as Christian Trope: The Place and Function of Islam in Reformed Dogmatic Theology.” The Muslim World 107, no. 4 (2017): 754-776. https://doi.org/10.1111/muwo.12220.

al-Rāzī, Abū ʿAbd Allāh Fakhr al-Dīn Muḥammad ibn ʿUmar. Tafsīr al-Fakhr al-Rāzī al-mushtahir bi-l-Tafsīr al-kabīr wa-Mafātīḥ al-ghayb. 32 vols. Beirut: Dār al-Fikr, 1981.

______. al-Maḥṣūl fī ʿilm uṣūl al-fiqh. 6 vols. Edited by Jābir Fayyāḍ al-ʿAlwānī. Beirut: Muʾassasat al-Risālah, 1992.

______. Nihāyat al-ʿuqūl fī dirāyat al-uṣūl. 4 vols. Edited by Saʿīd ʿAbd al-Laṭīf Fūdah. Beirut: Dār al-Dhakhāʾir, 2015.

Rea, Michael C. “The Trinity.” In The Oxford Handbook of Philosophical Theology, edited by Thomas P. Flint and Michael C. Rea, 403-429. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011.

Reynolds, Gabriel Said. “The Islamic Christ.” In The Oxford Handbook of Christology, edited by Francesca Aran Murphy and Troy A. Stefano, 183-198. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2015.

Rilliet, Albert. Calvin and Servetus: The Reformer’s Share in the Trial of Michael Servetus, Historically Ascertained. Translated with notes and additions by W. K. Tweedie. Edinburgh: John Johnstone, 1846.

Ryu, Bobby Jang Sun. “Knowledge of God in Philo of Alexandria with special reference to the Allegorical Commentary.” PhD diss., Oxford: University of Oxford, 2012.

Seale Morris S. Muslim Theology: A Study of Origins with reference to the Church Fathers. London: Luzac, 1964.

Segev, Mor. Aristotle on Religion. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2017.

Servetus, Michael. The Restoration of Christianity: an English translation of Christianismi restitutio, 1553 by Michael Servetus (1511-1553). Translated by Christopher A. Hoffmann and Marian Hillar. Lewiston, N Y: Edwin Mellen Press, 2007.

al-Sharafī, ʿAbd al-Majīd. al-Fikr al-Islāmī fī l-radd ʿalá l-Naṣārá ilá nihāyat al-qarn al-rābiʿ/al-ʿāshir. Tunis: al-Dār al-Tūnisiyyah li-l-Nashr, 1986.

al-Shawkānī, Abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad ibn ʿAlī ibn Muḥammad. Irshād al-fuḥūl ilá taḥqīq al-ḥaqq min ʿilm al-uṣūl. 4 in 2 vols. Edited by Abū Ḥafṣ Sāmī ibn al-ʿArabī al-Atharī. Riyadh: Dār al-Faḍīlah li-l-Nashr wa-l-Tawzīʿ, 2000.

Shroyer, Montgomery J. “Alexandrian Jewish Literalists.” Journal of Biblical Literature 55, no. 4 (1936): 261-284. https://doi.org/10.2307/3259122.

Skarsaune, Oskar. “Introduction, 1: Jewish Believers in Jesus in Antiquity – Problems of Definition, Method, and Sources.” In Jewish Believers in Jesus: The Early Centuries, edited by Oskar Skarsaune and Reidar Hvalvik, 3-21. Peabody, Mass.: Hendrickson Publishers, 2007.

Stead, George Christopher. Philosophy in Christian Antiquity. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994.

Thomson, Ann. Bodies of Thought: Science, Religion, and the Soul in the Early Enlightenment. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008.

el-Tobgui, Carl Sharif. “From Legal Theory to Erkenntnistheorie: Ibn Taymiyya on Tawātur as the Ultimate Guarantor of Human Cognition.” Oriens 46, no. 1-2 (2018): 6-61. https://doi.org/10.1163/18778372-04601002.

______. “Ibn Taymiyya on the Incoherence of the Theologians’ Universal Law: Reframing the Debate between Reason and Revelation in Medieval Islam.” Journal of Arabic and Islamic Studies 18 (2018): 63-85. https://doi.org/10.5617/jais.6521.

al-Ṭūfī, Abū l-Rabīʿ Najm al-Dīn Sulaymān ibn ʿAbd al-Qawī ibn ʿAbd al-Karīm al-Ḥanbalī. al-Intiṣārāt al-Islāmiyyah fī kashf shubah al-Naṣrāniyyah. 2 vols. Edited by Sālim ibn Muḥammad al-Qarnī. Riyadh: Maktabat al-ʿUbaykān, 1999.

______. Darʾ al-qawl al-qabīḥ bi-l-taḥsīn wa-l-taqbīḥ. Edited by Ayman Maḥmūd Shiḥādah. Riyadh: Markaz al-Malik Fayṣal li-l-Buḥūth wa-l-Dirāsāt al-Islāmiyyah, 2005.

van Vliet, Jason. Children of God: The Imago Dei in John Calvin and his Context. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 2009.

Whittingham, Martin. “How Could So Many Christians Be Wrong? The Role of Tawātur (Recurrent Transmission of Reports) in Understanding Muslim Views of the Crucifixion.” Islam and Christian-Muslim Relations 19, no. 2 (2008): 167-178. https://doi.org/10.1080/09596410801923659.

Williams, George H. The Radical Reformation. Philadelphia, PA: The Westminster Press, 1962.

Williams, Rowan. Arius: Heresy and Tradition. London: SCM Press, 2001.

Willis, Robert. Servetus and Calvin: A Study of an Important Epoch in the Early History of the Reformation. London: Henry S. King & Co., 1877.

Wolfson, Harry Austryn. Philo: Foundations of Religious Philosophy in Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. 2 vols. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1947.

______. The Philosophy of the Kalam. Cambridge, MA & London: Harvard University Press, 1976.

Wright, Richard. An Apology for Dr. Michael Servetus: Including an Account of His Life, Persecution, Writings and Opinions. Wisbech: F. B. Wright, 1806.

Xiuyuan, Dong. “The Presence of Buddhist Thought in Kalām Literature.” Philosophy East and West 68, no. 3 (2018): 944-973. https://doi.org/10.1353/pew.2018.0080.






Ilahiyat Studies: A Journal on Islamic and Religious Studies, 2009-2019 eISSN 1309-1719

Design by Bursa İlahiyat Foundation